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GLOSSARY

A I B I C I E I G I H I K I L I M I N I P I R I S I T I V I Y I Z


Ablation

In this context, destruction of tumour tissue through the effect of heat, e.g. during radio-frequency ablation or laser-induced trans-arterial ablation

Choroidal melanoma

Tumour of the choroid or uvea – the layer rich in blood vessels that lines the eye

Aflatoxin

Naturally occurring fungal toxin (group of mycotoxins)

Albumin

Protein formed in the liver

Alkaline phosphatase (AP)

An enzyme that serves as an indicator of various disease, such as of the liver, gall bladder or skeleton

Androgen

Sex hormone with “male” (masculinisation) effect

Angiography

Visualisation of vessels using imaging methods such as X-rays or magnetic resonance tomography, usually with the aid of a contrast medium

Arteria hepatica

Also: hepatic artery or liver artery. Artery supplying the liver and gall bladder with oxygen-rich blood

Ascites

Also: Fluid on the abdomen. Collection of fluid in the abdominal cavity caused by disease

Benign

Non-malignant (of tumour tissue)

Beta radiation

Also: β-radiation. Ionising radiation that is produced during radioactive decay

Bilirubin

Bile pigment – yellow decomposition product of the red blood pigment haemoglobin, which can provide an indication of adequate liver function

Chemotherapy

Systemic cancer therapy in which a substance or drug (chemotherapy agent) attacks the metabolism of cancer cells and prevents their grown, shrinks them or ideally destroys them

Cholinesterase

An enzyme that serves as an indicator of liver disease

Computer tomography (CT)

Imaging method in which a computer is used to show various X-ray images of slices of the human body without overlapping them

Embolisation

Therapeutic procedure for the artificial closure of blood vessels

Clotting parameters

Laboratory values for determining the blood’s ability to clot (e.g. PTT, Quick, INR)

Haemochromatosis

Iron storage disease; especially also in the liver, which can be damaged by it

Hepatitis

Inflammatory condition of the liver, which can be caused by mechanical or toxic effects or by pathogens

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

Liver cell cancer

Histology

Investigation of suspicious tissue to determine whether it is benign or malignant

Creatinine

Metabolic product excreted in the urine and which serves as an indicator of liver function

Laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT)

Treatment method restricted to the liver in which the tumour tissue is heated using laser waves to a temperature that causes it to die

Liver enzymes

Enzymes that serve as indicators of damage to the liver tissue (e.g. GOT, GPT, GGT, LDH)

Liver-lung shunt

Short-circuit connection between the liver and the lungs that allows the unwanted transfer of fluid

Partial liver resection

Removal of part of the liver; in the case of a tumour or metastases, also the part of the liver affected by the tumour (safety margin)

Liver cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease in which inflammation causes hardening and scarred shrinking of the organ

Local ablative

Local destructive

Local regional

Limited to a certain area

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Also: Nuclear spin tomography. Imaging method in which electromagnetic fields are used to create sectional images of the body

Malignant

Malignant (of tumour tissue)

Microspheres

Tiny spheres that are loaded with the beta emitter yttrium-90 in the case of Selective Internal Radiation Therapy

Microwave therapy (MW)

Treatment method restricted to the tumour in which the tumour tissue is heated using microwaves to a temperature that causes it to die

Multi-modal therapy

Combination of different treatments (e.g. chemotherapy and surgery)

Neuroendocrine tumour (NET)

Benign or malignant tumour which develops from altered hormone-producing or endocrine nerve cells (frequently in the digestive system)

Palliative therapy

Measure taken to alleviate a disease rather than completely cure it

PET/CT

Combination of the positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging methods

Primary liver cancer

Malignant changes of the liver tissue

Radio-embolisation

Radio-embolisation (also: Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT)) is a form of local radiotherapy for the treatment of liver cancer and liver metastases.

Radio-frequency ablation (RFTA or RFA)

Treatment method restricted to the tumour in which the tumour tissue is heated using radio-frequency waves to a temperature that causes it to die

Secondary liver cancer

Daughter tumours or metastases in the liver from tumours affecting other organs

SIR-Spheres microspheres®

Tiny synthetic resin spheres loaded with the beta emitter yttrium-90 and which are used in Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT)

Sorafenib

Medication in tablet form which slows the growth of cancer cells and inhibits their supply of blood

Systemic

Affecting the entire organism

Technetium-99 (Tc-99m)

Technetium-99m is a synthetic radioactive element with a short half life that is used in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures – in preparation for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT), for example.

Tc-99m-HSA

Before a SIRT procedure, it must be ensured that the microspheres do not travel in great numbers to other organs, such as the lungs. To assess this, clinicians determine the phenomenon known as the liver-lung shunt. Albumin micro-particles labelled with Technetium-99 (Tc-99m-MAA) are normally used for this. A German study is now determining whether human serum albumin microspheres (Tc-99m-HSA) are more suitable for assessing the shunt.

Testosterone

Sex hormone

Trans-arterial

Through the artery

Trans-arterial chemo-embolisation (TACE)

Tumour therapy that blocks the supply of blood to the tumour and in which the drug (chemotherapy substance) is able to work specifically in the tumour

Tumour marker

Substance which, if present at high levels in the blood, can indicate a tumour

Vena portae

Also: Portal vein. Vein supplying the liver with deoxygenated and nutrient-rich blood

Yttrium-90

Radioactive isotope that emits pure beta radiation

Cytotoxic

Harmful to cells

 
NEWS & DATES
More treatment options are necessary for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer – Colorectal cancer prevention is getting more and more attention. However, every third colorectal cancer patient develops metastases in the course of the disease – often in the liver. For these patients, more and better therapy options are needed. Local therapies offer promising opportunities.To the press release
The new ESMO guidelines recommend SIRT for people with metastatic colorectal cancer if the metastases are limited to the liver and are not responding to chemotherapy.
New evidence of the benefits of SIRT in mCRC – The depth-of-response data from the SIRFLOX study shows a significantly larger local depth of response through the combination of SIRT and chemotherapy. To the press release
Metastatic colorectal cancer: the SIRFLOX, FOXFIRE and FOXFIRE Global studies are investigating the benefits of combining SIRT with chemotherapy. The data from the three studies regarding overall survival is expected by the end of 2017. The SARAH and SIRveNIB studies on advanced liver cell cancer are now complete. Both compared Y90 radio-embolisation with sorafenib chemotherapy. The initial results are set to be published at the end of 2016 (SARAH) and 2017 (SIRveNIB).
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